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Strategic Autonomy and the Defence of Europe. Country Study: Belgium

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in: H.-P. Bartels, A.M. Kellner and U. Optenhögel, eds., Strategic Autonomy and the Defence of Europe: On the Road to a European Army, Bonn: Dietz, pp. 80-89.  This book offers insights into the political, academic and public debates on European defence and a more robust CSDP. It provides data and trends on defence spending, modernisation and multilateral cooperation for each member state and identifies the central forces shaping national and European security and defence policy. At the same time it highlights how much has already been achieved and provides concrete recommendations for the next steps towards European strategic autonomy.

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